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Stratification   Listen
noun
Stratification  n.  
1.
The act or process of laying in strata, or the state of being laid in the form of strata, or layers.
2.
(Physiol.) The deposition of material in successive layers in the growth of a cell wall, thus giving rise to a stratified appearance.






Collaborative International Dictionary of English 0.48








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"Stratification" Quotes from Famous Books



... which makes the history of a soul? It is the stratification of its different stages of progress, the story of its acquisitions and of the general course of its destiny. Before my history can teach anybody anything, or even interest myself, it must be disentangled from its materials, distilled and simplified. ...
— Amiel's Journal • Mrs. Humphry Ward

... way by demonstrating that a strong line of demarcation exists between the remains of these people and the earliest traces of the "red Indian" race which Europeans found in possession of the body of the continent; this gap is not one of stratification, or, perhaps, of time, but is shown by a strong distinctness in the character of the worked stones forming the weapons and implements of each people in respect to both material and degree of perfection. Considering further the probability (from ...
— Lippincott's Magazine, November 1885 • Various

... the German invasion was soon followed by more imposing additions. The repeated strategic devastations of the Rhenish Palatinate during the French and Spanish wars reduced the peasantry to beggary, and the medieval social stratification of Germany reduced them to virtual serfdom, from which America offered emancipation. Queen Anne invited the harassed peasants of this region to come to England, whence they could be transferred to America. ...
— Our Foreigners - A Chronicle of Americans in the Making • Samuel P. Orth

... fissures, were inundated occasionally by floods alone, or because of changes in location of the channel of the stream at the time of flooding. The periodicity of deposition of the sediments within portions of the fissures is indicated by the stratification of ...
— Two New Pelycosaurs from the Lower Permian of Oklahoma • Richard C. Fox

... which the internal texture and the mode of stratification have been changed, either p 249 by contact or proximity with a Plutonic or volcanic endogenous rock of eruption,** or, what is more frequently the case, by a gaseous sublimation of substances*** which accompany certain masses erupted in ...
— COSMOS: A Sketch of the Physical Description of the Universe, Vol. 1 • Alexander von Humboldt

... were directed towards Italy, the coast of which was accessible by sea only to skilful sailors and on that account was still in Homer's time wholly unknown to the Hellenes. But if the earlier settlers came over the Apennines, then, as the geologist infers the origin of mountains from their stratification, the historical inquirer may hazard the conjecture that the stocks pushed furthest towards the south were the oldest inhabitants of Italy; and it is just at its extreme south-eastern verge that we meet with ...
— The History of Rome (Volumes 1-5) • Theodor Mommsen

... never been moved before—the oak coffer, containing the miller's wardrobe—a tremendous weight, what with its locks, hinges, nails, dirt, framework, and the hard stratification of old jackets, waistcoats, and knee-breeches at the bottom, never disturbed since the miller's wife died, and half pulverized by the moths, whose flattened skeletons lay amid the mass ...
— The Trumpet-Major • Thomas Hardy

... but the southern steep faces are nearly bare; evidently the sun gets a good hold on them. There must be a good deal of melting and rock weathering, the talus heaps are considerable under the southern rock faces. Higher up the valley there is much more bare rock and stratification, which promises to be very interesting, but oh! for fine weather; surely we have had enough of ...
— Scott's Last Expedition Volume I • Captain R. F. Scott

... essential quality of the spirit of democracy, the free way to the farthest horizons, the open road to the highest position and service. When the atom becomes practically fixed by its environment, reposeful and stable, stratification sets in. We may or we may ...
— The French in the Heart of America • John Finley

... body and legs was on our side of the crack. The ice had sunk under my weight during the months of waiting in the tent, and I had many times put snow under the bag to fill the hollow. The lines of stratification showed clearly the different layers of snow. How fragile and precarious had been our resting-place! Yet usage had dulled our sense of danger. The floe had become our home, and during the early months of the drift we had almost ceased to realize that it ...
— South! • Sir Ernest Shackleton

... the electrodes, which are of silver, are on the outside, the current acting through the body of the glass. The first tube contains gas only slightly rarefied and at the stratification stage. It is simply a closed glass cylinder, with a coat of silver deposited outside at each end, and exhausted to a pressure of 2 millimeters. The outline of the tube is shown in Fig. 17. I pass a current, and, as you see, the stratifications, though ...
— Scientific American Supplement, No. 795, March 28, 1891 • Various

... Cambridge, Massachusetts, shews that there are causes, besides those usually assigned, which will produce stratification, or those interruptions which occur in deposits. He was engaged in examination of soils; and washed earth through a filter, at times so slowly as to occupy fourteen days in the process, and dried the sediment at a temperature of 250 degrees. This, when dry, he found to be perfectly ...
— Chambers's Edinburgh Journal, No. 434 - Volume 17, New Series, April 24, 1852 • Various

... character entitle him, is itself the negation of class. Human beings are not equal in these qualities. But a society that is based upon a constant flux of individuals in the community, upon the basis of ability and character, is a moving virile mass; it is not a stratification of classes. Its inspiration is individual initiative. Its stimulus is competition. Its safeguard is education. Its greatest mentor is free speech and voluntary organization for public good. Its expression in legislation is the common ...
— Herbert Hoover - The Man and His Work • Vernon Kellogg

... in imitation of the Greek romancists. With those who have investigated the subject, the hypothesis of translation is most in favour, and for the following reason. The story presents an appearance of double stratification, such as might naturally result if a heathen Greek romance had been translated into Latin by a Christian. Although the phenomenon could be equally explained by supposing a Latin heathen original which had been re-written by a Christian editor, yet the former ...
— Anglo-Saxon Literature • John Earle

... 13, A) that these filaments are rows of cylindrical cells with thick walls showing evident stratification. At intervals branches are given off, which may in turn branch, giving rise to a complicated branching system. These branches begin as little protuberances of the cell wall at the top of the cell. They increase rapidly in length, and becoming slightly contracted at the base, a wall ...
— Elements of Structural and Systematic Botany - For High Schools and Elementary College Courses • Douglas Houghton Campbell

... fancied resemblance which is seen in one of their cliffs to the tubes of an organ. These cliffs are of trap rock, which, as you are aware, often presents very fantastic and singular formations, by means of its peculiar stratification. But there is a still more curious feature about these Organ mountains. On the top of one of them is a lake, which has its tides that ebb and flow like the tides of the ocean! No one has yet accounted for this remarkable phenomenon, ...
— The Desert Home - The Adventures of a Lost Family in the Wilderness • Mayne Reid

... what has been found to be the case, wherever the stratified rocks have been penetrated by the melted masses from beneath. They have been themselves partially melted by the contact, and when they have cooled again, their stratification, though still perceptible, has been partly obliterated, and their substance changed. Such effects may often be traced in dikes, which are only the cracks in rocks filled by materials poured into them at some period of eruption when the melted masses within ...
— Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 11, No. 65, March, 1863 • Various

... transport. This Loess is a brownish-yellow loam, highly porous, spreading over low and high ground alike, smoothing over irregularities of surface, and often more than 1000 feet in thickness. It has no stratification, but tends to cleave vertically, and is traversed in every direction by sudden crevices, almost glacier-like, narrow, with vertical walls of great depth, and infinite ramification. Smooth as the loess basin looks in a bird's-eye view, it is ...
— The Travels of Marco Polo, Volume 2 • Marco Polo and Rustichello of Pisa

... accumulation, the result of occupation extending over many centuries, and easily recognizable among natural hillocks by its regular shape, smooth sides, and flat top. A khirbet is a field of ruins in which there is little or no stratification. Nearly all the sites of the latter type are the remains of villages not older than the ...
— How to Observe in Archaeology • Various

... similar to those produced by nature. Dr. Tyndall's experiments had proved the inconceivable minuteness of the atoms of matter; Mr. Gassiot and Professor Pluecher had published their experiments on the stratification of the electric light; and that series of discoveries by scientific men abroad, but chiefly by our own philosophers at home, which had been in progress for a course of years, prepared the way for ...
— Personal Recollections, from Early Life to Old Age, of Mary Somerville • Mary Somerville

... various changes which the terraqueous globe has undergone, and these are water and fire. Some of them have perhaps ascribed too much to one of these great agents of nature, and some to the other. They have generally agreed that the stratification of materials could only be produced from sediments or precipitations, which were previously mixed or dissolved in the sea; and that whatever effects were produced ...
— The Botanic Garden - A Poem in Two Parts. Part 1: The Economy of Vegetation • Erasmus Darwin

... exploring a sort of natural opening or cove in a part of the coast where the cliffs were unusually precipitous; affording the geologist the highest gratification; you were reminded indeed of the flat surface of a stone wall in many parts, which effect the regular stratification of the rocks contributed to produce; and it required no great stretch of fancy to imagine it one vast fortification, with loop-holes at regular intervals—at a short distance from seaward certainly it would be difficult to divest a stranger of the idea that it was something artificial. ...
— Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction, No. 475 - Vol. XVII, No. 475. Saturday, February 5, 1831 • Various

... do even more. Wherever lava flows occurred in the building of the Mountain, strata formed; and such stratification is clearly seen at intervals on the sides of the great rocks just mentioned. Its incline, of course, is that of the former surface. The strata point upward—not toward the summit which we see, but far above it. For this reason the geologists who have examined the aretes most closely are agreed that ...
— The Mountain that was 'God' • John H. Williams

... Rede Lecture, Part I. On the Stratification of Language, delivered before the University of Cambridge, 1868 63 Rede Lecture, Part II. On Curtius' Chronology of the Indo-Germanic Languages, ...
— Chips from a German Workshop - Volume IV - Essays chiefly on the Science of Language • Max Muller

... Indeed, the social stratification of my new home, where the excellent principles of high thinking and plain living were highly recommended for all who could not reverse the precept, struck me, a neophyte, as for all the world like that of a cathedral town in England, except that these visiting patrons of religion ...
— How To Write Special Feature Articles • Willard Grosvenor Bleyer

... cleavage in a society which has crystallized according to its own true laws. But the essence of equality is to be able to say the truth; and there is nothing more curious than these truths relating to the stratification ...
— Atlantic Monthly, Volume 3, No. 20, June, 1859 • Various

... conglomerate resting on granite. This latter rock seems to form the nucleus of the whole mass, and is seen in the deep lateral valleys, injected amongst, upheaving, overturning in the most extraordinary manner, the overlying strata. The stratification in all the mountains is beautifully distinct and from a variety in the colour can be seen at great distances. I cannot imagine any part of the world presenting a more extraordinary scene of the breaking up of the crust of the globe than the ...
— More Letters of Charles Darwin - Volume I (of II) • Charles Darwin

... in the order of worth. The primary substance of things is their mere material; their first cause is their lowest instrument. Matter has only the values of the forms which it assumes, and while each stratification may create some intrinsic ideal and achieve some good, these goods are dull and fleeting in proportion to their rudimentary character and their nearness to protoplasmic thrills. Where reason exists life cannot, indeed, be altogether slavish; for any operation, however ...
— The Life of Reason • George Santayana

... while Scotland was the abode of barbarism. The Pyrenees, Carpathians, and other ranges of continental Europe are all younger than these Scotch hills, or even the insignificant Mendip Hills of southern England. Stratification tells this tale as plainly, and more truly, than LIVY tells the story of the Roman republic. It tells us that at the time when the Grampians sent streams and detritus to straits where now the valleys of the Forth and Clyde meet, the greater ...
— An Expository Outline of the "Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation" • Anonymous

... to do so; although, in reality, it matters very little to the artist whether the slaty cleavage be across the beds or not, for to him the cleavage itself is always the important matter, and the stratification, if contrary to it, is usually so obscure as to be naturally, and therefore properly, lost sight of. And touching the disputed question whether the micaceous arrangements of metamorphic rocks are the results of subsequent crystallization, or of aqueous deposition, I had no special call ...
— Modern Painters, Volume IV (of V) • John Ruskin

... inflectional without having passed through the agglutinative and isolating stratum. No language can be agglutinative without clinging with its roots to the underlying stratum of isolation."—'On the Stratification of ...
— The Coming Race • Edward Bulwer Lytton

... long, white-capped range, contrasting in its beautiful blending of tints with the warm sienna color of the lower elevations. Kelas was some two thousand feet higher than the other peaks of the Gangri chain. It showed strongly defined ledges and terraces marking its stratification, and these were covered with horizontal layers of snow of brilliant white in contrast to the dark, ice-worn rock. The Tibetans, the Nepalese, the Shokas, the Humlis, Jumlis, and Hindoos, all had a strong veneration for ...
— An Explorer's Adventures in Tibet • A. Henry Savage Landor

... "Ocean of Tempests," sometimes it appeared like a brilliant point through the cloudy light, and was taken for a volcano in activity. But it is only an extinct one— like all on that side of the moon. Its circumference showed a diameter of about twenty-two leagues. The glasses discovered traces of stratification produced by successive eruptions, and the neighborhood was strewn with volcanic remains which still choked some ...
— Jules Verne's Classic Books • Jules Verne

... things, the form of our land must be considered as having been determined by three different causes, all of which have operated, more or less, in producing the present state of those things which we examine. First, There is a regular stratification of the materials, from whence we know the original structure, shape, and situation of the subject. Secondly, There are the operations of the mineral region, some of which have had regular effects upon the strata, as we find in the veins or contractions of the consolidated masses; others have had ...
— Theory of the Earth, Volume 2 (of 4) • James Hutton

... anchored midway to form a surveying station, brought up finally under a small unnamed islet in Trinity Bay. This island, viewed from our anchorage on its north-west side, presents the appearance of a ridge connecting two rounded eminences, with a sharp sea-face exposing the stratification of the rock. This is a micaceous rock, assuming at one place the appearance of mica slate, and at another being a conglomerate, with frequent veins of quartz. The strata, which are often flexuous, or slightly contorted, have a westerly dip ...
— Narrative Of The Voyage Of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, Commanded By The Late Captain Owen Stanley, R.N., F.R.S. Etc. During The Years 1846-1850. Including Discoveries And Surveys In New Guinea, The Louisiade • John MacGillivray

... to the "stratification" of the Trades Unions, there is a cleavage cutting across the Communist Party itself and uniting in opinion, though not in voting, the Mensheviks and a section of their Communist opponents. This cleavage is over the question of "workers' ...
— The Crisis in Russia - 1920 • Arthur Ransome

... rocks, but although distinctly stratified, are often soft and friable, presenting beds of marle and clay, and thick deposits of sand. In some cases their appearance is so similar to diluvial or even alluvial deposits, that they might be mistaken for them, were it not for their more regular stratification. These are the tertiary formations of the German school, the superior order of ...
— The American Quarterly Review, No. 17, March 1831 • Various

... found peace at last, a strange and shadowy and ironic triumph, like an abstract apology, will surely hover over all those graves in the Wilderness where lay the bones of so many gallant gentlemen; men who had also from their youth known and upheld such a social stratification, who had the courage to call a spade a spade ...
— What I Saw in America • G. K. Chesterton

... quarter of an hour we had reached the extremity of the "Salt Mountain," with all its distorted, sometimes even perpendicular stratification. By this time we were convinced that the whole of the mountain is not salt, but that a good deal of the upper length of it is a mixture of salt and marl or sand. Between it and the water's edge we frequently ...
— Byeways in Palestine • James Finn

... into the neighboring country, I had opportunities of studying this deposit, both in the province of Rio de Janeiro and in the adjoining province of Minas Geraes. I found that it rested everywhere upon the undulating surfaces of the solid rocks in place, was almost entirely destitute of stratification, and contained a variety of pebbles and boulders. The pebbles were chiefly quartz, sometimes scattered indiscriminately throughout the deposit, sometimes lying in a seam between it and the rock below; while the boulders ...
— The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 18, No. 105, July 1866 • Various

... this plateau there is a low, narrow valley with mesas and buttes. Then the country suddenly rises by a stupendous line of cliffs 2,000 or 3,000 feet high. These cliffs are composed of sand stones, limestones, and shales, of many colors. The stratification in many places is minute, so that they have ...
— Canyons of the Colorado • J. W. Powell

... when? That it was formed by the action of fire, any child would agree who had ever seen a brick-kiln. It is simply clay and sand baked, and often almost vitrified into porcelain-jasper. The stratification is gone; the porcellanite has run together into irregular masses, or fallen into them by the burning away of strata beneath; and the cracks in it are often lined ...
— At Last • Charles Kingsley

... is at first light brown or dark red, and becomes constantly darker and finally taking a velvet-black. As its stratification upon the platinum is unequal, it forms beautifully ...
— Scientific American Supplement, No. 441, June 14, 1884. • Various

... rugged in places by the occurrence of loose slabs, which give the appearance of stratification ...
— Journals of Travels in Assam, Burma, Bhootan, Afghanistan and The - Neighbouring Countries • William Griffith

... of the huge hill was revealed to its backbone and marrow here at its rent extremity. It consisted of a vast stratification of blackish-gray slate, unvaried in its whole height by ...
— A Pair of Blue Eyes • Thomas Hardy

... offended at the undemocratic manner of its rendering. When Dabney, furthermore, made no return calls for assistance, the restraint was increased. The rich might patronize the poor in the stratified society of old Virginia; in young Mississippi such patronage was an unpleasant suggestion that stratification was beginning.[17] With the passage of years and the continued influx of planters ready to buy their lands at good prices, such fanners as did not thrive tended to vacate the richer soils. The Natchez-Vicksburg district became largely consolidated into great plantations,[18] ...
— American Negro Slavery - A Survey of the Supply, Employment and Control of Negro Labor as Determined by the Plantation Regime • Ulrich Bonnell Phillips

... This, when removed and dried, makes a firm, white, and stony mass. Sometimes this magma is condensed into a solid mass in the bladder by reason of the binding action of the mucus and other organic matter, and then forms a conglomerate stone of nearly uniform consistency and without stratification. ...
— Special Report on Diseases of the Horse • United States Department of Agriculture

... economic equality in an area of free land had a democratizing influence on the social class structure. This three-class stratification, composed of property owners distinguished by their morality, other property owners, and tenants, was an open-class system marked by a noticeable degree of mobility. Fair Play settlers who began as tenants could, and did, ...
— The Fair Play Settlers of the West Branch Valley, 1769-1784 - A Study of Frontier Ethnography • George D. Wolf

... torrid, the temperate, of the northern frigid zones, and were altogether unlike those of the lower southern latitudes we had already traversed. The very rocks were novel in their mass, their color, and their stratification; and the streams themselves, utterly incredible as it may appear, had so little in common with those of other climates, that we were scrupulous of tasting them, and, indeed, had difficulty in bringing ...
— The Works of Edgar Allan Poe - Volume 3 (of 5) of the Raven Edition • Edgar Allan Poe

... Figeac, or what has long passed as such, is based upon an ingenious stratification of fraud, arising out of a very old quarrel between the monks of Figeac and the monks of Conques, and the determination of the former to prove at all costs that their monastery was the more ancient of the two. This would be a matter ...
— Wanderings by southern waters, eastern Aquitaine • Edward Harrison Barker



Words linked to "Stratification" :   stratify, geological process, contour, categorisation, compartmentalisation, condition, form, positioning, position, categorization, locating, foliation, shape, conformation, classification, placement, social stratification, geologic process, emplacement, configuration, assortment



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